compose an essay answering the following questions:
– what was the nature of "pre-classical" economic inquiry, and what characterizes the focus of "classical" economics as exemplified in particular by Adam Smith.
– Following on from Smith, what were the contributions/questions raised by other classical’s; specifically, Malthus, Ricardo, Mill, and Bentham (Feel free to include others if you like).
– In less than the three volumes of Das Kapital, explain as succinctly as possible the contribution/perspective of Karl Marx, and consider the validity of the so-called "labor theory of value".
– Neoclassical economics springs from the viewpoint that consumers ("households") and producers ("firms") are optimizer. Explain what they are optimizing and as rigorously as you can a diagrammatic illustration of a "neoclassical equilibrium".