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    Roberts, G. E. (2003). Employee performance appraisal system, participation. A Technique That Works. Public Personnel Management, 89-98.
    Performance appraisal is a standout amongst the most intricate and important human resource management procedures. Participation appraisal is a fundamental and demonstrated characteristic of a successful performance appraisal system. This article outlines the establishment for participation and its importance for enhancing employee’s motivation, expanding accessible data, and interjecting employee’s voice. The role of objective setting and feedback in enhancing participation is delineated. The article also points out the elements that lessen the participation effectiveness that includes absence of rater accountability, lack of training, and authoritative and supervisory resistance to legitimate subordinate input.
    Mani, B. (2002). Performance appraisal systems, productivity, and motivation. A Case Study. Public Personnel Management. 141-159
    A reliable and valid performance appraisal system gives workers and administrators information about representatives’ strengths and weaknesses. This information is then utilized to reinforce employee’s strengths and to arrange and provide assistance to develop in areas of need; thereby enhancing employee’s motivation, morale, and efficiency. This paper investigates workers’ and administrators’ view of a framework with these objectives, a framework particularly intended to assess performance of North Carolina “Subject to the Personnel Act” (SPA) employees at East Carolina University. The information demonstrates that a vast number of employees, however no supervisors, are disappointed with the framework; that neither the number of subordinates nor the time spent assessing workers under the framework influences supervisors’ satisfaction with the framework; and that employees’ view of the fairness of the framework is identified with satisfaction and trust with their supervisors yet not with consistence to the program’s methods. Although different elements inspire employees and supervisor, pay is vital. So the authority’s inability to allocate funds to reward employees who exceed expectations undermines the framework’s effectiveness.
    Ali, S. B., Mahdi, A., & Malihe, J. (2012). The effect of employees’ performance appraisal procedure on their Intrinsic Motivation. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 1-8
    Fast-moving change and progress made in the field of knowledge management and the rate at which communication is rising which is, in return, contributing to the need for an even more effective performance evaluation system for firms. The report discusses the different models provided by industry specialists on how to evaluate performance, on which basis and how to properly align it with the company’s mission, structure and values. It also discusses the effect of performance evaluation which is to increase motivation. The authors have compiled their research is a descriptive survey study to see the connection between performance evaluation and intrinsic motivation.
    Emadi, A., Qayed, A. A., & Wei, C. (2015). The vital role of employee retention in Human Resource Management: A Literature Review. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14 (3), 1-7.
    This article provides rich literature on the field of employee retention and the various theoretical frameworks written on the matter. It evaluates the different factors that causes employees to stay in their jobs and what causes them to leave. Furthermore, it also discusses what can result in an employee shifting from a public sector to a semi-private or private sector and how Human Resources can work effectively to help maintain employee retention in an organization. For the purposes of this research, the authors examined real life policies implemented in Qatar on training and development, performance appraisals, recognition and opportunities for promotions and links it all to retention. It also talks about how employee engagement, commitment and satisfaction is also an important factor.
    Fletcher, C., & Williams, R. (2010). Appraisal, feedback and development. Making Performance Review Work. New York: Routledge.
    This book gives an overview into the frameworks and established industry practices regarding employee appraisals, feedback and development. It talks about the three aspects of human resource management separately. Appraisal is a process of evaluating an employee on a yearly or quarterly basis, Feedback is part of the appraisal and helps in making the employee understand where they lack and employee development is undertaken to help groom employees. All these components are then linked together to make performance review work and helps in increasing performance and productivity within and organization effectively.
    Joseph, O. B. (2014). Effectiveness of performance appraisal as a tool to measure employee productivity in organizations. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 1-14.
    This research paper discusses the operational value of performance appraisal in a bid to increase employee productivity. The study concluded that most workers are appraised by their supervisors and both the managers and workers were unanimous in agreeing that the promotion system was a valid proper framework that was put into place at the organizations discretion. There are times when biases creep in such as rate, sex, tribe, appearance and personal feelings which effect the ratings given to employees. The survey finally concluded that in order to have a fair, equitable performance appraisal system, and the evaluation of employees should be based solely on job performance.
    Saiyadain. M. S. (2009). Human Resources Management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill Publishing.
    This book is a general, overall perspective into the field of human resources management and the different components that make it up. It has topics ranging from employee motivation, to training and development to performance and compensation and even appraisal. For the purposes of this report, the chapters based solely on performance appraisal and retention will be utilized and the general theories and frameworks surrounding those topics. The author is a distinguished academic professor as well as an industry expert so his opinion on this matter would be concrete and valid.
    Patro, C. S. (2014). A study of the impact of employee retention policies on organizational productivity in private sector. International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management archive. 5(3), 48-63
    This research studies the impact of employee retention policies on organizational productivity. First it analyzes the various retention policies such as improving work/life balance, training and development, compensation packages and career growth opportunities. It talks about the vitality of these factors and how it helps improve employee motivation and support. The author makes use of several real-life examples for numerous industries to support his point. Finally, he links it all together to organizational productivity. While it is true that costs are high, it final comes back to aid and improve the organization.

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