Ex 1
Question 1
The payouts for the three years will be as follows:
1                      2                      3                      4
200,000           30,000             30,000             30,000
The corresponding benefits are:
1                      2                      3                      4
0                      100,000           100,000           100,000
As a result the NPV comes out to be a negative $22809.4
The ROI for the project will be = (10000/290000) % = 3.4%
The payback for the project will be in the 4th year after its operation.
As the project has a negative NPV, so I would advise investing in the project. The merit of a project should always be determined with the help of the NPV tool. If the NPV is positive then one should invest in the project otherwise not since it will then be a loss making proposition and the investor can park the money in a risk-free asset.
Question 2
Change in an institution happens through schemes and programs. A program and project management mindset significantly improves an organization. According to the Pulse 2015, businesses lose $109 million for every $1 billion invested in programs and projects (Shwalbe, 2015). Findings on how well the teams are delivering on strategic initiatives have stayed the same. The best way to solve this issue is to go back to the basics. The basics include completely comprehending the importance of design management, possessing actively involved official sponsors, adjusting plans to examine, promoting and sustaining project management expertise, installing a well-aligned PMO and utilizing regulated project management fashions in the entirety the business.
A firm’s viewpoint about culture, knowledge, and method assist in maintaining excellence in project, schedule and office management (Shwalbe, 2015). Organizations that follow these characters meet their projects’ goals. In my opinion, the basics could help a team improve its project management. Designing a culture that promotes project management and increases the business value involves a few steps. The steps include fully understanding the importance of project management, requiring actively engaged advocates on projects and programs, adjusting projects and programs to the organization’s strategy and having a highly developed project, program and portfolio management.
Question 4
Cost is influenced by the product of time and people (Alexander, 2017). Extending the period enhances the cost of contracting people for an extended time. Adding more teams would lead to an increase in cost to deliver the same business value. Agile principles help in altering duration of time and team members and allow range to be the changeable aspect (Alexander, 2017). Agile contracts involve the following: Fixed price work packages, early termination, flexible changes, additional work and ranged estimates.
Flexible changes allow for a product to be successful from the beginning. It aids firms to support variable data and feedback to ensure that clients get satisfactory results. The teams may use old features that may no longer be necessary to improve a product.
Organizations rely on customer feedback to better their products. Through the comments, they can re-evaluate their products and come up with better quality products that are accepted by the clients. They then work on the fixed price work packages and consequently price them according to the market.
Early termination allows a client to terminate a project if they have already received the required amount of deliveries. The customer gets to finish the project soon after receiving all the valuable features.
A firm may consider additional work as other features needed for the project increase cost beyond the estimated price. Separate freshly assessed work units can be joined to regress to time and materials.
Alexander, A. (2017). Cost Estimating in an Agile Deveopment (pp. 1-24).
Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

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