Exercise 6
Answer 1:  The sample size of employed COPD patients belong to sever airflow limitation group is 7 with the percentage of 14%.
Answer 2: The retired employees were 61% of the total sample and the current working employees were 15% of the total sample at the moment.
Answer 3: This study is conduct for the sample size of 91 employees in which 30 (30*91%-27.3%) of the total sample were still employed. (30 *91% = 27.3%)
Answer 4: Total number of smokers either smoke or former smoked is 28% + 69% = 26.48%. Yes it is important in order to examine the symptoms of patients with stable COPD and to determine whether the symptoms experience differed between patients with moderate or severe airflow limitation.
Answer 5: The average pack year smoking in case of moderate is 29.1 and in case of sever is 34.0. Since the p-value is 0.177BMI which is greater than the significant value of 0.05 so, there is not a significant difference between the moderate and sever airflow limitation group regarding pack years of smoking?
Answer 6: Difficult sleeping (52%), followed by worrying (33%), feeling irritable (28%0 and feeling sad (22%) are the most commonly reported psychological symptoms. This study evaluate that there was no significant difference between occurrence of physical and psychological symptoms in relation to moderate and airflow limitation patients.
 Answer 7: 45 patients or 41% patients of the total sample used short-acting B 2-agonists.
Answer 8: Since the p-value 0.001 is less than the significant value of 0.05 so, there is a significant difference between the moderate and sever airflow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting B2-sgonists.
Answer 9: The use of short-acting β2-agonists is expected by the 13 (13%) moderate and 32 (65%) sever airflow limitation.
 Answer 10: Yes these findings are ready for use in practice because the survey concluded that nurses generally assessed overall organizational climates as moderately positive.
Exercise 8
Answer 1:
Table 1: Mean and Median








Table 1 show that the mean, median and mode of the nursing students enrolled in the program is 576, 577 and 563 respectively.
Answer 2:
Answer 3: The distribution of inpatient complications is a bimodal because it has two mode i.e. 7 and 8.
Answer 4: History of coronary artery disease, personal history of coronary artery disease and history of arrhythmias
Answer 5: The mean and median lengths of stay (LOS) for the study participants are 21 hours and 24 hours.
Answer 6: There is a significant difference between mean and median for LOS which indicate the distribution of the sample in term of the 2 hours of ECG Holter monitoring and seems to be an outlier.
Answer 7: Life threatening and PVC with respect to LOS.
Answer 8: The most common arrhythmia related to LOS in question 7 is PVC.
Answer 9: Approximately 22% of patients had more than 50 premature ventricular contractions PVCs per hour in this study
Answer 10: In table 1, White race is the mode for this sample. These study findings should be generalized to ACS in term of Life-threatening arrhythmias are rare in patients with ACS, but almost one quarter of the sample experienced isolated PVCs
Exercise 9
Answer 1: The study has a mixed methods study by name and the two phases mixed methods study by type to measure respectively.
Answer 2: The first phase of the study was quantitative and the second phase of the study was qualitative as level of measurement
Answer 3: The subscales included in organizational climate were Job, Role, Leadership, Work Group and Organization. These subscales seem relevant because the items used to measure Job were related to perceived autonomy, importance of work, and being challenged.
Answer 4: Organization had the lowest mean at 2.36 which show that this is the most negatively perceived of the subscales covered by PCQ scale.
Answer 5: The dispersion results were SD = 1.01 and Observed Range = 1.00 – 5.00
Answer 7: The job subscale of Caring Practices had the highest mean which indicate that the job had the lowest variation of the subscales.
Answer 8: The overall rating for Organizational Climate with the overall rating of Caring Practices provides readers a richer understanding of the nurses’ perceptions of their organization.
Answer 9: This is the study strength that might be increases with an online survey format and additional reminders sent participants reminding them to complete the survey.
Answer 10: The researchers make conclusion regarding the caring practices of the nurses in this study is that element of the organizational climate of hospital directly affect the nursing practice.

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