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The data is collected for the period 2012 and the unit of analysis are citizens of specifically the U.S. The ordinal scale variable is political knowledge and death penalty opinion is the interval scale variable. These variables are treated as dependent variable in the study. Political knowledge variable represents the knowledge of the common person regarding current political situation of the country. Whereas death penalty opinion refers to the view of people regarding the severity of punishment.
Political knowledge is ranked on Likert scale. Low knowledge is marked with “0”, mid knowledge by “1”, and high knowledge by “2”. Similarly, death penalty opinion is ranked on 4 point Likert scale. Approve strongly is marked by “1”, approve by “2”, oppose by “3”, and oppose strongly by “4”. In this dataset, political knowledge was observed through official sources as well as survey. The education and voting percentage determined level of political knowledge of people. Whereas, the information regarding the death penalty views was directly collected from the public. The respondents were asked to rate their opinion regarding the death penalty. The frequency table for each variable is given as follows.
 
 
 

Statistics

 
 
Pol Knowledge
Death Penalty Opinion

N
Valid
3837
5749

Missing
2079
167

Mean
1.19
1.87

Median
1.00
1.00

Mode
2
1

 
 

Pol Knowledge

 
 
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent

Valid
Low know
815
13.8
21.2
21.2

Mid know
1488
25.1
38.8
60.0

High know
1534
25.9
40.0
100.0

Total
3837
64.9
100.0
 

Missing
System
2079
35.1
 
 

Total
5916
100.0
 
 

 
The political knowledge frequency table shows 65 percent response rate. It was observed that 13.8 percent had low knowledge, 25.1 percent had mid-level knowledge, and 25.9 had high knowledge. The knowledge of 35.1 percent people was undetermined.
 
 

Death Penalty Opinion

 
 
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent

Valid
AppStrng
3079
52.0
53.5
53.5

Apprv
1138
19.2
19.8
73.3

Oppose
711
12.0
12.4
85.7

OppStrng
822
13.9
14.3
100.0

Total
5749
97.2
100.0
 

Missing
System
167
2.8
 
 

Total
5916
100.0
 
 

 
The above table shows the frequencies of death penalty opinion. 3079 people approved strongly, 1138 approved it, 711 opposed it, and 822 strongly opposed it. However, 167 did not respond to the question. Response rate was 97.2 percent. In case of both these variables, mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency.
Consider gender and education as the independent variables in this study. Male and female gender views shall be observed for death penalty opinion and education shall be related with political knowledge. Education levels are high school, college, and college plus.
 

Education

 
 
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent

Valid
HS or less
2362
39.9
40.3
40.3

Some coll
1777
30.0
30.3
70.6

Coll+
1725
29.2
29.4
100.0

Total
5864
99.1
100.0
 

Missing
System
52
.9
 
 

Total
5916
100.0
 
 

 
 
There are 40 percent people who are high school or less qualified. 30 percent are some college qualified and 29.2 percent are college plus qualified. Response rate was 99.1 percent.

Gender

 
 
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent

Valid
Male
2836
47.9
47.9
47.9

Female
3080
52.1
52.1
100.0

Total
5916
100.0
100.0
 

 
There are 47.9 percent male and 52.1 percent female.
The relationship between the education and political knowledge shall be determined through correlation test. Similarly, gender and death penalty opinion relationship shall also be observed.
 

Correlations

 
 
Education
Pol Knowledge

Education
Pearson Correlation
1
.337**

Sig. (2-tailed)
 
.000

N
5864
3807

Pol Knowledge
Pearson Correlation
.337**
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
 

N
3807
3837

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 
The Pearson Correlation test shows a positive significant relationship between education and political knowledge. It describes that improvement in the education level increases the political knowledge of people.
 

Correlations

 
 
Gender
Death Penalty Opinion

Gender
Pearson Correlation
1
.042**

Sig. (2-tailed)
 
.001

N
5916
5749

Death Penalty Opinion
Pearson Correlation
.042**
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.001
 

N
5749
5749

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 
The correlation between gender and death penalty opinion shows that there is slightly positive and significant relationship. The opinion of male and female slightly vary regarding death penalty.
A control variable is introduced in the relationship that is “federal govt a threat”? It determines if the relationship between the gender and death penalty opinion changes with an introduction of a control variable.
 

Correlations

Control Variables
Gender
Death Penalty Opinion

Fed Govt a Threat?
Gender
Correlation
1.000
.043

Significance (2-tailed)
.
.002

df
0
5230

Death Penalty Opinion
Correlation
.043
1.000

Significance (2-tailed)
.002
.

df
5230
0

 
There was only a slight change in the correlation value with an introduction of a control variable. It means that federal govt threat does not make any change in the relationship. The rating of federal govt threat is measured on a Likert scale that is from 0 to 2. “0” for none, 1 moderate, and 2 for extreme.
Similarly, the same control variable is introduced in the relationship between the education and political knowledge. The Pearson value improved for this relationship with an introduction of control variable.
 

Correlations

Control Variables
Education
Pol Knowledge

Fed Govt a Threat?
Education
Correlation
1.000
.341

Significance (2-tailed)
.
.000

df
0
3784

Pol Knowledge
Correlation
.341
1.000

Significance (2-tailed)
.000
.

df
3784
0

 
 
Work Cited
Barkan, Steven E and Steven F Cohn. “Racial Prejudice and Support for the Death Penalty by Whites.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency (1994): 202-209. Online.
Burden, Barry. “The dynamic effects of education on voter turnout.” Electoral Studies (2009): 540-549. Online.
Stack, Steven. “Support for the Death Penalty: A Gender Specific Model.” Sex Roles 43.3 (2000): 163-179. Online.
 

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