Chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation are respiratory disorders that affect children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often assist physicians in providing treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes, patients require immediate treatment, making it is essential to recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients. Some approaches work better than others, depending on individual patient factors. One method that supports the clinical decision making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.
· Review “Asthma” in Chapter 26 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
· Consider drugs used to treat asthmatic patients, including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients.
· Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients, including adults and children.
· Review Chapter 25 of the Poole Arcangelo and Peterson text. Reflect on using the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management. Consider how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.
· Think about how to educate patients to develop a plan for medication adherence. Consider how the plan might differ based on the patient’s age.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
· Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Then, explain the changes in the arterial blood-gas patterns during an exacerbation.
· Describe long-term control and quick-relief drugs used to treat asthma in patients.
· Explain the impact these drugs might have on adults and children.
· Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management and how this approach assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.
· Explain how you would help patients develop a plan for medication adherence, including how the plan might differ based on the patient’s age.
· *Kindly put introduction, purpose of the paper, the content of the answered questions, summary/conclusion, and references (Put headings on it).
· *Please utilize my resources below at least three references on the list and you can add more at least 3 in your own resources…
· Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
o Chapter 25, “Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System”
This chapter provides information relating to the structure and function of the pulmonary system to illustrate normal pulmonary function. It focuses on gas transport to build the foundation for examining alterations of pulmonary function.
o Chapter 26, “Alterations of Pulmonary Function”
This chapter examines clinical manifestations of pulmonary alterations and disorders of the chest wall and pleura. It covers the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.
o Chapter 27, “Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children”
This chapter focuses on alterations of pulmonary function that affect children. These alterations include disorders of the upper and lower airways.
Poole Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
o Chapter 18, “Otitis Media and Otitis Externa”
This chapter compares the causes and pathophysiology of two common ear infections: otitis media and otitis externa. It also identifies the types of drugs used to treat these ear infections.
o Chapter 24, “Upper Respiratory Infections”
This chapter explores the causes, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria of two upper respiratory infections—the common cold and sinusitis—as well as drug therapy for both infections. It also covers monitoring patient response and patient education regarding drug therapy for these infections.
o Chapter 25, “Asthma”
This chapter examines the causes, pathophysiology, pharmacogenomics, and diagnostic criteria of asthma. It also outlines suggested drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients.
o Chapter 26, “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease”
This chapter explains the causes and pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It also examines the process of selecting, administering, and managing drug therapy for COPD patients.
o Chapter 27, “Bronchitis and Pneumonia”
This chapter begins by examining the causes, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria of acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia. It then explores the process of selecting, administering, and managing drug therapy for patients with bronchitis and pneumonia.
Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from www.drugs.com
This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (2012). Expert panel report 3 (EPR3): Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma [Online report]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm
This section of the website presents guidelines for diagnosing and managing asthma. It also outlines treatment recommendations for specific age groups.
· Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012h). Mid course review. Baltimore, MD: Author.
This media is an interactive mid-course review covering course content from Weeks 1–6.
· American Lung Association. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://www.lung.org/
· Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, fromhttp://www.aafa.org/
· Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, fromhttp://www.cdc.gov
· Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://www.cff.org/
· Haymarket Media, Inc. (2012). Monthly prescribing reference [Online database]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.empr.com/
· Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ismp.org/
· Medscape. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/