Differentiating Reasoning

Re-evaluate the articles you examined from the Opposing Viewpoint Resource Center in the University Library in Week Two.
Address the following issues in a 250- to 350-word response for each article:
 ·         Discuss whether the author used deductive argument or inductive reasoning.
·         Identify the deductive argument, or some of the supporting information for the inductive reasoning.
·         Explain your answer using the course materials to support your findings

Article 1:

Children in the Backseat Are the Worst Distraction for Drivers
 

David Petrie’s articles on parenthood and education can be found in the Huffington Post.
Noisy kids in the back seat is one driving distraction that has not been addressed by government initiatives that address dangers of distracted driving. Many parents, trying to reign in quarreling siblings or fishing for dropped or thrown items, take their eyes off the road and endanger their families. While the focus on texting-while-driving is laudable, it has failed to address long-standing issues. Yet in both cases—an incoming call and a crying child—drivers should pull over and not attempt to multitask.

Experts at the United States Department of Transportation say there are three types of driver distractions:

Visual distractions lead drivers to take their eyes off the road.
Manual distractions lead drivers to take their hands off the wheel.
Cognitive distractions lead drivers to take their minds off what they’re doing.

According to these experts, texting is the most alarming driver activity because it involves all three types of distractions.
Have these experts ever driven in a car with an infant?
Driving with Children Is Dangerous
Driving alone in a car with an infant can be a nightmare. Take my oldest. To keep our house peaceful, we made sure she was completely addicted to Binkies two hours out of the womb. Still, a five-point babyseat harness would send her into such a tizzy that even pacifiers stopped working. When I had to drive her somewhere alone, I’d strap her in to her car seat, then I’d start the car, and then she’d start to wail. I’d give her a pacifier and she’d chuck it onto the floor. I’d drive a quarter mile, stop, retrieve the pacifier, and then repeat the process.
How did I clean the Binky? On good days I had coffee in the car. On bad days … I’ll save you from the details.
Driving alone in a car with an infant can be a nightmare.
I quickly learned to drive with multiple pacifiers, so as soon as she’d chuck one I’d reach back and pop another one into her mouth. She’d take a few sucks from that pacifier, chuck it, start to scream, and I’d reach back with another one.
While I drove and while my daughter chucked Binkies I dealt with all three types of driver distractions:

Visual distractions took my eyes off the road as I tried to see where the pacifier landed.
Manual distractions took my hands off the wheel as I reached behind my seat and fished around the floor.
Cognitive distractions took my mind off of the road as I asked myself why-oh-why had I ever thought having a child was a good idea.

The Focus on Texting-While-Driving Is Misguided
Distracted driving is a huge problem, but to limit a campaign to one source of distraction is unfortunate at best. One study showed that 60 percent of parents felt driving alone with an infant strapped in a rear-facing car seat in the back seat was “very distracting.” Eighty percent feared it could cause an accident. In 2001 the American Automobile Association reported that young children in the car were one of the leading causes of driver-distraction crashes for people ages 20 to 29. Texting might be more widespread now, but the impact of a screaming child certainly hasn’t changed.
Distracted driving is a huge problem, but to limit a campaign to one source of distraction is unfortunate at best.
The U.S. Department of Transportation created a website to get people to stop texting while driving. Why haven’t they created a website to stop people from driving with kids in the car?
The fix to distracted driving hasn’t changed. The Department of Transportation says, “The message is simple—Put it down!” I think they send the wrong message. People are putting their cell phones down—in their laps, so the police can’t see them texting behind the wheel. Experts at the Institute for Highway Safety recently said this could increase the risk of accidents.
I think the message needs to be, “Pull over and stop.”
When I’d finally lose patience with my daughter I’d pull over and get out. I’d lean against the back of my car, hazard lights flashing, and try to find some inner peace before climbing back behind the wheel. When I pulled over I presented zero risk for crashing. People would stop to ask if I needed help, but once they heard the screaming they’d simply nod and drive away. Out of gas? No problem. That noise? Good luck.
The U.S. Department of Transportation created a website to get people to stop texting while driving. Why haven’t they created a website to stop people from driving with kids in the car?
One day my wife discovered a ribbon that came with clips on either end. One clip snapped to the handle of the pacifier and the other end clipped to the car seat. When my daughter chucked the pacifier I only needed to reach back and find the ribbon before reeling in the pacifier like a fish. I felt safer, but the screaming still drove me nuts.
The clip and ribbon weren’t perfect. There were times my little girl would chuck her Binky so hard that it would swing around like a tether ball and smack her in the eye. When that happened I suffered from a different driver distraction: laughter.
No Alternatives to Pulling Over
“You don’t want that Binky?” I’d snicker to myself. “It looks like that Binky doesn’t want you, either.”
My kids are all a lot older now, but I still need to pull over at times. Sometimes I do it so quickly that the shock quiets them before we come to a complete stop. I then turn and remind them of two things: I want to drive safely so that they’ll live long and healthy lives, and if they don’t want to help me drive safely then they can find some other way to get around.
What do you think the message should be? “Put it down,” “Pull over and stop,” or something else?
 
Article 2:
 
 

Cell Phone Use Distracts Drivers

Edmunds.com publishes articles that engage and educate automotive consumers and enthusiasts and provide automotive industry commentary and analysis.
DWY—”driving while yakking”—has become the main distraction of drivers, thanks to cell phones that allow not only talking but also texting and the use of social-networking sites and e-mail. Studies have found that whether or not drivers use hands-free devices, they are severely distracted by ongoing conversations and are prone to ignore signs and signals and other traffic. While responsible cell phone use might cut back on the most fatal mistakes behind the wheel, the best choice is to shut off the phone and concentrate fully on the road.

At any given moment, more than 1 million U.S. drivers are talking on handheld cell phones, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Why is this a problem? Cell phones (also called wireless phones) are a known distraction. In a 2008 survey by Nationwide Insurance, 67 percent of people admitted to using a cell phone while driving.
This has created an obvious concern about cell phone safety. Dozens of countries have banned the use of handheld phones while driving. In the U.S., California, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Utah, Washington, D.C. and many municipalities have fully outlawed in-vehicle handheld phone use. Dozens of states have banned cell phone use by minors and bus drivers. Many other attempts at strong state legislation have failed or been tabled.
The Debate About Safety
At the core of this flurry of legislative attempts is the debate over whether DWY—or “driving while yakking”—is truly dangerous. Wireless-phone proponents say that talking on a cell phone is the same as or less of a distraction than changing your radio station, trying to control your kids or eating—none of which is regulated of course. Since many states already have laws that ban distracted driving, they contend that outlawing handheld cell phones is penalizing the technology instead of the behavior.
Driving while yakking is a distraction that may decrease our ability to operate the vehicle effectively.
A 2005 controlled study of Australian drivers found that cell phone users were four times as likely to get into an accident serious enough to injure them. These findings echoed the results of a 1997 study of Canadian drivers, who linked cell phone usage with increased property damage.
Whether we choose to admit it or not, driving while yakking is a distraction that may decrease our ability to operate the vehicle effectively. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) analyzed the results of over 120 cell phone studies. They found that nearly all of the studies reported that some aspects of driver performance were affected by the mental distraction associated with cell phone use. The IIHS reported that phone conversation tasks typically decreased reaction times, travel speeds, and increased lane deviations and steering wheel movements.
Clearly, now that we have learned the benefits of cell phones, there’s no going back. Instead of stewing in traffic, we can conduct business and stay in touch with family and friends. We can let people know when we’re running late. If there’s a problem on the road, cell phones allow us to call for roadside assistance or medical help. We can report problems: a drunk driver, a stranded motorist, an obstacle in the road. Drivers even call in traffic reports to radio stations, allowing the rest of the community to benefit from their knowledge.
Phones Pose a Great Risk
But let’s face it. In spite of these benefits, cell phones do pose a serious risk because they distract from driving. With that in mind, here are our suggestions for using a cell phone safely in your car.
• Get to know your phone and its features—if you can dial a number with one key instead of seven or 10, you’re better off.
• Position your phone within easy reach—bending over to reach for it takes your eyes of the road and can cause you to swerve.
• Suspend calls in heavy traffic or in bad weather—you need to focus even more under hazardous conditions.
• Do not take notes or look up phone numbers while driving—enough said.
• Keep conversations short. Inform the person you’re calling that you are in a car, and hang up as soon as possible.
• If possible, place calls when you are not moving. Pull over where possible.
• Ask a passenger to help. Have someone else make or take the call.
• Do not engage in stressful or emotional conversations—leave the child support conversations for the home phone.
Most hands-free users are using some form of headphone or earphone. These often ill-fitting devices have frequent volume problems and can themselves be a source of distraction.
Hands-Free Phones?
One would think that using a hands-free phone would solve the problem. It leaves you with two hands on the wheel, right? Not necessarily. Most hands-free users are using some form of headphone or earphone. These often ill-fitting devices have frequent volume problems and can themselves be a source of distraction. The IIHS reported that a driver’s likelihood of getting in an accident increases fourfold when talking on a wireless phone, whether handheld or hands-free. The NHTSA researched whether using phones hands-free makes a difference; it actually had to change its “test headphone” from an earclip design to a headband-style design (which runs over the crown of the head) to assure that test-drivers wouldn’t have to use their hands to repeatedly adjust the earclips. The study found that drivers typically favored hands-free and voice-dialing options over holding the phone, and typically found these setups easier to use.
There are several hands-free options that make more sense, eliminating the need for a headphone by running voice calls through your car’s speakers.
Additionally, an increasing number of cell phones and vehicles are equipped with Bluetooth technology. This allows you to have your phone anywhere in your car (even the trunk!) and still make and receive calls. You’ll hear the calls through the speakers, and your voice will be transmitted through the car’s built-in microphone. Bluetooth-enabled cars are equipped with voice recognition technology, such that you can make and receive phone calls without having to touch any buttons on the phone….
What may come as an interesting surprise is that, even if a cell phone is being used completely hands-free, the risk of having an accident doesn’t seem to be reduced. Apparently, the act of conversing on the phone—not holding the phone to your ear—is the more dangerous distraction. Emotional conversations in particular seem to elevate risk. So hands-free or not, there’s an increased risk to DWY.
Even in states or localities where cell phones are banned, there is a serious problem with compliance.
Not Calling Might Be the Only Option
It is difficult to pinpoint exactly how many people are using hands-free devices. Most of the research has been performed by looking at phone bill records at the time of the accident. But according to the IIHS there is enough data to suggest that although hands-free phones eliminate the physical distraction of handling phones, the cognitive distraction still remains.
NHTSA’s 2005 study on wireless phone interfaces showed that while participants had a tougher time steering with a hand held phone, it also made calls the fastest and had less dialing errors than a hands free unit. Our resistance to grasp this wireless technology may lead to slow adoption rates. Even in states or localities where cell phones are banned, there is a serious problem with compliance.
The IIHS’s study adds that “… even if total compliance with bans on drivers’ hand-held cell phone use can be achieved, crash risk will remain to the extent that drivers continue to use or switch to hands-free phones.”
We agree that wireless technology is terrific, but just because it seems to be everywhere doesn’t mean you have to use it everywhere. You never know: The most important call of your life could be the one you never make

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