What is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year of 2016?


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    Analyzing Data and Writing a report
    Introduction
    The main topic of study is “What is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year of 2016?” From this topic, it will be expected that the research will be able to determine the rate of homicides in different cities in the year 2016.
    Population
    The population for the study is the murder rate in cities in the year of 2016. Specifically, this will include conducting the study in 30 different cities to get the data for the analysis. Despite there being many cities, the selection will be made random to determine the rates of homicide in the selected regions or cities.
    The Variable
    The variables used for the collection of data collection was murder rates in the year 2016. This period was selected specifically as a sample for the study. This would help make conclusions on the broader population based on the few that were used in the study.
    Data collection
    My data collection process began with myself choosing the number of homicides in 30 different cities out of 50, using the website “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_murder_rate “. The steps I took to avoid bias in my sample is plugging in my variables in the calculator in the format of randIntNoRept (1,50,30) which then the calculator randomized the 50 variables but gave me the 30 randomized variables, and that helped me avoid bias in my sample. As a result, I gathered the 30 randomized variables and put them in a table, which would be my sample population.  The sample I obtained is a representative of my population because the 30 different cities I have is out of the 50 cities, which is means it’s a representative of population.
    Data collection

    A) To avoid bias in my sample I plugged in the 50 cities and instructed the calculator to choose 30 randomly, which it did then I gathered the data for the 30 different cities.
    B) The sample I obtained does not represent the whole population because I used 30 different cities out of 50 for the sample. (As seen in the appendix)

    Results

    Sample size
    Mean
    Standard deviation

    30
    30025/30 1000.83
    921.5

     
     
     

    Rank
    Municipality
    Country
    Homicides (2016)
    Population (2016)
    Homicides per 100,000

    50
    Durban
     South Africa
    1,261
    3,662,000
    34.43

    32
    Kingston
     Jamaica
    545
    1,199,613
    45.43

    16
    Vitôria da Conquista
     Brazil
    208
    346,069
    60.1

    5
    Victoria
     Mexico
    293
    346,029
    84.67

    10
    Natal
     Brazil
    1,097
    1,577,072
    69.56

    20
    Salvador
     Brazil
    2,180
    3,984,583
    54.71

    6
    Maturín
     Venezuela
    499
    592,574
    84.21

    13
    Cape Town
     South Africa
    2,434
    4,005,000
    60.77

    43
    Nelson Mandela Bay
     South Africa
    495
    1,263,000
    39.19

    19
    Campos dos Goytacazes
     Brazil
    275
    487,186
    56.45

    30
    Gran Barcelona
     Venezuela
    397
    846,353
    46.86

    31
    Palmira, Valle del Cauca
     Colombia
    142
    306,727
    46.3

    4
    Distrito Central
     Honduras
    1,027
    1,206,897
    85.09

    1
    Caracas
     Venezuela
    4,308
    3,305,204
    130.35

    35
    Fortaleza
     Brazil
    1,808
    4,019,213
    44.98

    36
    Detroit
     United States
    302
    677,116
    44.6

    45
    Macapá
     Brazil
    179
    465,495
    38.45

    23
    Guatemala City
     Guatemala
    1,596
    3,026,729
    52.73

    28
    Recife
     Brazil
    1,887
    3,940,456
    47.89

    47
    Vitoria
     Brazil
    681
    1,813,977
    37.54

    34
    New Orleans
     United States
    176
    389,617
    45.17

    40
    Chihuahua
     Mexico
    369
    878,062
    42.02

    17
    Barquisimeto
     Venezuela
    785
    1,322,068
    59.38

    11
    Belém
     Brazil
    1,633
    2,422,481
    67.41

    7
    San Salvador
     El Salvador
    1,483
    1,778,467
    83.39

    24
    Culiacán
     Mexico
    469
    905,265
    51.81

    15
    Feira de Santana
     Brazil
    375
    622,639
    60.23

    41
    Obregón
     Mexico
    133
    324,788
    40.95

    25
    Maceió
     Brazil
    529
    1,021,709
    51.78

    21
    Cali
     Colombia
    1,358
    2,514,759
    54

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    It is appropriate to use the normal distribution to compute the confidence interval for the sample mean because the sample size is 30 and the minimum is 30 for it to be appropriate, in addition the standard deviation is known.
    E329.75
     
    1000.83 – 329.75  1000.83 – 329.75
    671.0755  1330.5845
    From the calculations, it can be seen that the range is approximately between 671.0755 to 1330.5845 homicides in the 30 different cities. This represents a high number as compared to the expected results.
     
    Findings
    Interpret the results of the statistical analysis in the context of the original research question and does your analysis support your expected findings? Explain
    My research question was, what is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year 2016? After collecting a sample data for a number of homicides in a total of 30 different cities out of 50 cities, I found out a number of homicides deaths ranges from 671 to 1330 homicides per city. I am 95% confident that the interval from 671 to 1330 is the interval that contains the sample mean. The number of homicides deaths ranges from 671 to 1330 for 30 different cities and the analysis will vary depending on the country’s safety and location. For example, a country that has a lot of drugs and poverty would have more homicide rates than a country with no or little drugs and it will also depend on the government and how they enforce their laws, and if the government tries to prevent homicides. In addition, if there is corruption in the police force which does not take into consideration the safety of the citizens, then there is a problem because it depends on whether they put any efforts to protect their citizens.
    Poverty is also a variable because usually the poor will try to commit crimes. The main reason for them to be involved in such behaviors is so that they can get something to cater for their lives. In most occasions, there are other regions where these people are involved in such practices so that they can rob those who are wealthy and as a result help themselves. However, there are those that are involved in such trends due to the substances they use in the name of satisfying themselves. In any case, it is the responsibility of the authorities to ensure that every citizen is safe from any form of violence. Those found to be in the wrong should be rightfully prosecuted and brought to justice. In this way, they will be maintaining peace in the society. In the end, every individual will live in harmony.
    Discussion
    Based on the findings, it is clear that the number of homicides is higher than expected. Although the number was expected to be approximately less than 900. From the findings, it was seen that the number of homicides in the cities tested was as high as 1330. From this value, the average can be approximated to be more than 671 which was the minimum. From these values, it can be concluded that these cities are involved with practices of homicide for one reason or another. Again, it is quite clear that the authorities are not working as they are expected to reduce the levels of homicide. The availability of gangs can be attributed to being one of the major causes of homicide. However, it is the mandate of the governmental authorities to ensure that every citizen is safe from such trends. They should be extra vigilant and take precautionary measures to ensure that no citizen is killed by another for any reason. In so doing, they will be taking responsibility for the lives of the citizens which is basically what they are supposed to be doing.
    From the project, it was quite clear that the cities that had higher rates of homicide than others. These may be attributed to the fact that there are certain problems associated with their regions. Some of these problems may be the nature of the society and the authorities involved in the areas. From the research variable, murder rates in major cities in the year 2016, we learn that despite efforts by the government and authorities to curb homicide, it has not been successful. This means that they have to improve their efforts to curb this trend which is proving to be a hindrance to economic development. Most people end up dead or displaced due to fear of being killed hence destabilizing their involvement in economic development. The statistical analysis conducted was essential in helping understand the homicide rates in the different cities. In fact, the use of samples was important in helping make conclusions on the rate of homicides in the cities. This was so because it helped reduce the time that would rather have been taken to carry out the actual research study on all the cities physically. For this reason, the statistical analysis of the research was important in helping make valid conclusions on the rate of homicides in the cities.
     
     
    Appendix

    Rank
    Municipality
    Country
    Homicides (2016)
    Population (2016)
    Homicides per 100,000

    1
    Caracas
     Venezuela
    4,308
    3,305,204
    130.35

    2
    Acapulco
     Mexico
    918
    810,669
    113.24

    3
    San Pedro Sula
     Honduras
    845
    753,864
    112.09

    4
    Distrito Central
     Honduras
    1,027
    1,206,897
    85.09

    5
    Victoria
     Mexico
    293
    346,029
    84.67

    6
    Maturín
     Venezuela
    499
    592,574
    84.21

    7
    San Salvador
     El Salvador
    1,483
    1,778,467
    83.39

    8
    Ciudad Guayana
     Venezuela
    727
    877,547
    82.84

    9
    Valencia
     Venezuela
    1,124
    1,560,586
    72.02

    10
    Natal
     Brazil
    1,097
    1,577,072
    69.56

    11
    Belém
     Brazil
    1,633
    2,422,481
    67.41

    12
    Aracaju
     Brazil
    589
    938,550
    62.76

    13
    Cape Town
     South Africa
    2,434
    4,005,000
    60.77

    14
    St. Louis
     United States
    188
    311,404
    60.37

    15
    Feira de Santana
     Brazil
    375
    622,639
    60.23

    16
    Vitôria da Conquista
     Brazil
    208
    346,069
    60.1

    17
    Barquisimeto
     Venezuela
    785
    1,322,068
    59.38

    18
    Cumaná
     Venezuela
    266
    488,507
    59.31

    19
    Campos dos Goytacazes
     Brazil
    275
    487,186
    56.45

    20
    Salvador
     Brazil
    2,180
    3,984,583
    54.71

    21
    Cali
     Colombia
    1,358
    2,514,759
    54

    22
    Tijuana
     Mexico
    871
    1,641,570
    53.06

    23
    Guatemala City
     Guatemala
    1,596
    3,026,729
    52.73

    24
    Culiacán
     Mexico
    469
    905,265
    51.81

    25
    Maceió
     Brazil
    529
    1,021,709
    51.78

    26
    Baltimore
     United States
    318
    621,849
    51.14

    27
    Mazatlán
     Mexico
    245
    502,547
    48.75

    28
    Recife
     Brazil
    1,887
    3,940,456
    47.89

    29
    Joao Pessoa
     Brazil
    530
    1,114,039
    47.57

    30
    Gran Barcelona
     Venezuela
    397
    846,353
    46.86

    31
    Palmira, Valle del Cauca
     Colombia
    142
    306,727
    46.3

    32
    Kingston
     Jamaica
    545
    1,199,613
    45.43

    33
    Sao Luis
     Brazil
    693
    1,526,213
    45.41

    34
    New Orleans
     United States
    176
    389,617
    45.17

    35
    Fortaleza
     Brazil
    1,808
    4,019,213
    44.98

    36
    Detroit
     United States
    302
    677,116
    44.6

    37
    Juárez
     Mexico
    607
    1,391,180
    43.63

    38
    Teresina
     Brazil
    363
    847,430
    42.84

    39
    Cuiabá
     Brazil
    365
    856,706
    42.61

    40
    Chihuahua
     Mexico
    369
    878,062
    42.02

    41
    Obregón
     Mexico
    133
    324,788
    40.95

    42
    Goiânia y Aparecida de Goiânia
     Brazil
    782
    1,980,774
    39.48

    43
    Nelson Mandela Bay
     South Africa
    495
    1,263,000
    39.19

    44
    Armenia
     Colombia
    145
    376,185
    38.54

    45
    Macapá
     Brazil
    179
    465,495
    38.45

    46
    Manaus
     Brazil
    801
    2,094,391
    38.25

    47
    Vitoria
     Brazil
    681
    1,813,977
    37.54

    48
    Cúcuta
     Colombia
    305
    824,406
    37

    49
    Curitiba
     Brazil
    1,148
    3,287,046
    34.92

    50
    Durban
     South Africa
    1,261
    3,662,000
    34.43

     
     
     
     
     
     

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